ttfopen, ttfscale, ttfclose, ttffindchar, ttfenumchar, ttfgetglyph, ttfputglyph, ttfgetcontour, ttfrender, ttfrunerender, ttfnewbitmap, ttffreebitmap, ttfblit – TrueType renderer


#include <u.h>
#include <libc.h>
#include <bio.h>
#include <ttf.h>

struct TTBitmap {
u8int *bit;
int width, height, stride;

struct TTGlyph {
int xminpx, xmaxpx, yminpx, ymaxpx, advanceWidthpx;
/* + internals */

struct TTFont {
int ppem, ascentpx, descentpx;
/* + internals */

TTFont*     ttfopen(char *filename, int size, int flags);
TTFont*     ttfscale(TTFont *f, int size, int flags);
void        ttfclose(TTFont *f);

int         ttffindchar(TTFont *f, Rune r);
int         ttfenumchar(TTFont *f, Rune r, Rune *rp);

TTGlyph*    ttfgetglyph(TTFont *f, int glyphidx, int render);
void        ttfputglyph(TTGlyph *g);
int         ttfgetcontour(TTGlyph *g, int idx, float **fp, int *nfp);

TTBitmap* ttfrender(TTFont *f, char *s, char *e, int w, int h,
int flags, char **pp);
TTBitmap* ttfrunerender(TTFont *f, Rune *s, Rune *e, int w, int h,
int flags, Rune **pp);

TTBitmap* ttfnewbitmap(int w, int h);
void        ttfblit(TTBitmap *dst, int dstx, int dsty, TTBitmap *src,
int srcx, int srcy, int w, int h);
void        ttffreebitmap(TTBitmap *);


Libttf is a parser and renderer of TrueType fonts. Given a ttf font file it can produce the rendered versions of characters at a given size.

Ttfopen opens the font at filename and initialises it for rendering at size size (specified in pixels per em). Flags is reserved for future use and should be zero. If rendering at multiple sizes is desired, ttfscale reopens the font at a different size (internally the size–independent data is shared). TTfclose closes an opened font. Each instance of a font created by ttfopen and ttfscale must be closed separately.

A character in a TrueType font is called a glyph. Glyphs are numbered starting from 0 and the glyph indices do not need to follow any established coding scheme. Ttffindchar finds the glyph number of a given rune (Unicode codepoint). If the character does not exist in the font, zero is returned. Note that, in TrueType fonts, glyph 0 conventionally contains the "glyph not found" character. Ttfenumchar is like ttffindchar but will continue searching if the character is not in the font, returning the rune number for which it found a glyph in *rp. It returns character in ascending Unicode order and it can be used to enumerate the characters in a font. Zero is returned if there are no further characters.

Ttfgetglyph interprets the actual data for a glyph specified by its index glyphidx. With render set to zero, the data is left uninterpreted; currently its only use is ttfgetcontour. With render set to one, the glyph is also rendered, i.e. a pixel representation is produced and stored in the TTBitmap embedded in the TTGlyph structure it returns. Although TrueType uses a right handed coordinate system (y increases going up), the bitmap data returns follows Plan 9 conventions (and is compatible with the draw(3) mask argument). The bottom left hand corner is at position (xmin, ymin) in the TrueType coordinate system. Ttfputglyph should be used to return TTGlyph structures for cleanup.

Ttfgetcontour can be used to obtain raw contour data for a glyph. Given an index i it returns the corresponding contour (counting from zero), storing a pointer to a list of (x, y) pairs in *fp. The array is allocated with malloc(2). The (always odd) number of points is stored in *np. The contours correspond to closed quadratic Bézier curves and the points with odd indices are the control points. For an invalid index, zero is returned and *fp and *np are not accessed. For a valid index, the number returned is the number of contours with index ≥ i.

Ttfrender and ttfrunerender typeset a string of text (specified as UTF–8 or raw Unicode, respectively) and return a bitmap of size w and h. It attempts to typeset text starting from s and up to and not including e. If e is nil, text is typeset until a null byte is encountered. Flags specifies the alignment. TTFLALIGN, TTFRALIGN and TTFCENTER specify left–aligned, right–aligned and centered text, respectively. TTFJUSTIFY can be or'ed with these three options to produce text where any ``wrapped'' line is justified.

For reasons of efficiency and simplicity, libttf includes its own format for 1 bpp bitmaps. In these bitmaps, 0 corresponds to transparent and 1 corresponds to opaque. Otherwise, the format is identical to k1 image(6) bitmaps. Ttfnewbitmap and ttffreebitmap allocate and deallocate such bitmaps, respectively. TTGlyph structures can be used in place of bitmaps but must be deallocated with ttfputglyph, not ttffreebitmap. Ttfblit copies part of one bitmap onto another. Note that bits are or'ed together ?? blitting a transparent over an opaque pixel does not produce an transparent pixel.


Apple, ``TrueType(tm) Reference Manual''.
Microsoft, ``OpenType® specification''.
FreeType, source code (the only accurate source).

Following standard conventions, routines returning pointers return nil on error and return an error message in errstr.

Both ``standards'' are packages of contradictions and lies.

Apple Advanced Typography and Microsoft OpenType extensions are not supported; similarly non–TrueType (Postscript, Bitmap) fonts packaged as .ttf files are not supported.

The library is immature and interfaces are virtually guaranteed to change.

Fonts packaged as .ttc files are not supported.

Libttf first appeared in 9front in June, 2018.